The data are in: Suspension and expulsion do not work. Not only do they fail to improve student behavior and create safer schools as was once believed, they actually lead to negative outcomes. Studies have found that the higher the rates of suspension and expulsion in a school, the lower the scores on standardized achievement tests, regardless of socioeconomic status or student demographics (Skiba & Rausch, 2006). Furthermore, students who are suspended show increases in withdrawal, avoidance of school staff, stigmatization among peers and decreased academic performance (Costenbader & Markson, 1998). So what is an effective alternative?