What is mindfulness? According to Hooker & Fodor (2008), mindfulness is a very cognizant, purposeful way to be entirely aware of what is happening within us as well as around us, without judgement. Another way of defining it, is “paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally, to the unfolding of experience moment to moment” (Kabat-Zinn, 2003, p. 145). Mindfulness is learned and practiced through meditation and breathing exercises, during which mental awareness and experiencing the present moment are stressed.
In order to help prepare students for the workforce, Career Development and Occupational Studies (CDOS) learning standards were developed. CDOS learning standards and activities begin in kindergarten and continue through grade 12. They contain universal foundation skills which were developed in the early 1990s by a commission approved by the US Secretary Labor. It contained findings which are widely used today. In total, eight areas were identified. The first three are foundational: basic skills, thinking skills and personal qualities. The remaining five are workplace oriented: resources, interpersonal, information, systems and technology.