Ask the ‘TASC is a PBIS advice column from the RSE-TASC Specialists
Question: Tier 1 and 3 seem clear. What would Tier 2 look like? In classroom vs. outside of classroom? Small group? Who is responsible? Teachers? Social Workers? School Psychologist?
Tier 2 interventions provide support to those students who are at-risk for developing more serious problem behavior. In any given year, 10-15% of a school’s population might access Tier 2 interventions. The hope is that these students will learn to exhibit appropriate behavior and will find success in school without needing intensive, individualized support at the Tier 3 level.
But what do Tier 2 interventions look like? Simply put, Tier 2 is Tier 1, but more frequent and more intensive. At the Tier 1 level, all students are taught expected behaviors and all students are intermittently reinforced for engaging in those behaviors. Some students will require more frequent reinforcement and/or more intensive teaching in order to meet expectations. That’s where Tier 2 come in. The more frequent reinforcement is often called Check-In Check-Out (CICO) and consists of student-teacher check-ins throughout the day. The teacher provides specific praise as well as constructive feedback on the student’s targeted behaviors. The intensive teaching is often called Social Skills Groups or Social-Academic Instructional Groups (SAIG), which teach expected behaviors through modeling, role-play, feedback and generalization.
While CICO and SAIG are the most widely researched Tier 2 interventions, schools may choose to develop other kinds of interventions based on the needs of their students. For example, if data indicate that a group of students are struggling academically due to poor organizational skills, then an Organizational Skills intervention may be appropriate. Whichever interventions a school chooses to develop and implement, it’s essential that each one includes a progress monitoring component that measures students’ progress in the natural setting (i.e., the classroom or the cafeteria) as opposed to the counseling setting. Then, as part of the twice-monthly meetings held by the Tier 2 team, progress monitoring data can be analyzed to determine which students need a modification to their plan, which students need a more intensive intervention, and which students are ready to be faded off of the plan (i.e., self-monitoring). Hence, the “continuum of support” that is PBIS.
For more information about Tier 2, check out these resources:
Non District School Improvement Specialist
|When planning PBIS implementation, it is important to remember that the PBIS framework is a guide that can look different across settings. Here are some ideas to keep in mind when thinking about what Tier 2 can look like in your setting.|
Dr. Terry Scott presented “Effective Instruction as a Tier 2 Intervention” in December 2016. Dr. Scott shared a few classroom concepts to help educators in improving instructional practices.
Small Group/ Outside of the Classroom
There are a few planning requirements to consider when setting up small groups of students that may or may not meet outside of their classroom. Dr. Scott identified:
Who is responsible to implement all of this? That decision depends on your school. All teachers can be responsible for ‘effective instruction’ as a Tier II intervention. Small groups can be run by teachers, deans, coaches, social workers or school psychologists. I recommend consulting with your PBIS team, using data to determine needs and engaging staff in how best to support students.
Scott, T.M. (2016). Tier II Strategies for Students Challenging Behaviors: Academic & Social Success, Lower Hudson RSE-TASC at PNW BOCES, Yorktown Heights, NY, December 16, 2017.
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